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A root canal is that part of the tooth in which the dental “nerve”, or pulp, is located. A“living” tooth differs from a “dead” tooth precisely by the presence of pulp. This tooth tissue is located both in the tooth crown and in its root, and the processes of the pulp penetrate the dentin through microscopic channels, reaching the enamel. Pulp nourishes dentin, participates in its growth, protects other soft tissues of the dentition from infection.
Inside each tooth, there is an internal cavity called the pulp chamber. It is associated with root canals - cavities inside the roots of a tooth. A different number of channels corresponds to a different group of teeth. Therefore, depending on which group the tooth belongs to, depends on the number of its root canals. Typically, they are between one and three.
The root canal of a tooth is a thin elongated hole located along the axis of the root. The entrance to the root canal is called the apical opening (from the apex - the apex), it is located at the end of the root. Through this hole, blood supply and innervation of the tooth is carried out with the help of a nerve, more precisely, the neurovascular bundle, which enters the root through the apical opening. Often, micro branches resembling the crown of a tree depart from the main canal of the tooth. In the process of root canal treatment, this must be taken into account.
It is necessary to understand why, after removing the nerves from the tooth, it is necessary to seal the channels. The hollow root canal of the tooth is fertile ground for the development of various infections. In an unsealed canal, optimal conditions are formed for the propagation of pathogenic microorganisms, which subsequently cause inflammation of the peri-root tissues - periodontitis. Such tooth risks being removed. To prevent this, the channel should be hermetically and tightly sealed.
The success of root canal filling is largely determined by the quality of the previous endodontic procedures, and mainly determines the outcome of the treatment.
The main requirement of this stage is the reliability of root canal sealing. Before filling, the channels are dried with paper pins.
To fill the root canals, gutta-percha and paste are used. Gutta-percha is a rubber material that is produced in the form of cones; the size and shape of gutta-percha correspond to the shape and size of the files by which root canals are cleaned.
Gutta-percha cones are pasted and inserted into the root canals of the tooth. To obtain good sealing, a few more cones are introduced into the root canals.
After filling the root canals, the dentist puts a temporary seal on the hole that was made to reach the root canal.
The canal should be sealed to the apex and without voids and defects.
After all this, the next visit is scheduled, during which the dentist puts a permanent seal.
Surgical endodontics is performed with full anesthesia. Removing a nerve is a very painful procedure. Access to the pulp and the mouth of the root canals is carried out by drilling holes in the tooth. After the pulp chamber and root canals are opened, nerves can be removed using a special tool - a pulp extractor. Then you need to thoroughly process the channels. This is a very important and sensitive procedure.
For canal filling, a preparation based on processed gutta-percha, a substance obtained from plant components, is used.
Consider the methods of root canal filling using gutta-percha:
All these methods have both advantages and disadvantages, in general, they give approximately one result. But the second and third methods are more optimal since the heated gutta-percha is more plastic, which allows filling not only the channel without pores and air cavities but also microchannels. And this is the key to further remission and the absence of complications. But the successful outcome of treatment depends not only on the application of a particular technology but also, first of all, on the qualifications and skills of a specialist who applies this or that technique.